Monopole matter is matter composed of magnetic monopoles, particles with only one pole hence possessing magnetic charge. They are responsible for some dense bodies in some universes and have a broad range of technological applications.
Notation and NomenclatureEdit
Magnetic monopoles are named by adding the prefix north- or south- to the name of the ordinary matter
Due to historical reasons, some monopoles has their own names, for example dyogen
Magnetic monopoles/antimonopoles are often notated by adding a captial N or S to the top right portion of the particle symbol, for example
aN or aS
For electrically neutral particles whose antimatter is not itself, it is notated by using the bar convention of notating antimatter and adding a captial N or S to the top right portion of the particle symbol
aN or aS or aN or aS
For charged monopoles (dyons/antidyons), the electric charge of the particle in addition to a captial N or S to the top right portion of the particle symbol, with the electric charge always precede the magnetic charge (N or S)
a+N or a+S or a-N or a-S
Alternately, the aforementioned bar convention can also be used
aN or aS or aN or aS
An unspecified monopole is often notated M while an unspecified dyon M+ or M-
Monopoles are generally produced by big bangs of the universes
Cosmic monopoles are produced when the universes transit from one state to another
Dirac monopoles (leptonic or bosonic) are produced in some universes by
- Enegetic cosmic events such as cosmic rays via the process of pair production. The pair usually binds to form monopolium due to the strong mutual attractive force between the pair, and/or
- βN/βS decays, which produce leptonic dyons and monopoles such as northneutrinos
Magnetic monopoles are basically identical to electric charges, but their interactions are much stronger
- Electromagnetism (The magnetic charge is 67.5 times greater than the electric charge, therefore the interactions of the monopoles are stronger than electric charges)
- Time (The magnetic charge does not invert when the arrow of time is reversed, therefore electric charges within the monopole megnetic field cannot travel backwards along the same path)
In most universes there are two types: North and South, which are antiparticles of each other
Some universes have 4 types: North, South, Antinorth and Antisouth. In such universes, north and south monopoles are usually confined into monopolium (similarly for antimonopolium) and only monopolia can anihilate with their respective antimonopolia (fields produced by poles are identical to those produced by the corresponding antipoles)
Some universes have only 1 type: North. There are two known categories
- Monopoles that are antiparticles of themselves
- Monopoles that have no antiparticle counterparts
Lastly, 3 known universes have 3 types of poles: North, South and Nil. The nil pole is known to produce an opposite magnetic field to counteract other external magnetic fields, effectively cancel out all magnetic fields within its vincity. Nil poles are also repelled by the other types of poles (since their property of opposing magnetic fields ensures them to always participate in a like pole interaction)
Dirac monopoles are basically point magnetic charges with no substructure. Their masses vary from 0.28 eV to 281.4 GeV
They can have any charge in multiples of gD, the elementary magnetic charge, and are generally stable
An electrically charged dirac monopole is a dyon. They are similar to dirac monopoles except they are generally unstable and decay readily into leptons and dirac monopoles
Cosmic monopole (aka GUT monopole)Edit
Cosmic monopoles are more massive than their point like counterparts, with masses vary from 600 GeV to 1017 GeV. Unlike dirac monopoles, they have no known negative mass counterparts
They have an onion like structure, where the crust is a cloud of fermion-antifermion pairs, the "upper mantle" a vacuum of virtual photons and gluons (and sometimes gravitons and choronons), the "lower mantle" a vacuum of virtual bosons and a core of GUT vacuum filled with virtual X and Y bosons, which can catalyse proton decay. Beyond the crust, it forms a magnetic field similar to the dirac monopoles. The lighter/smaller the cosmic monopole, the larger its core relative to the size of the monopole.
They generally have a charge of gD and 3gD and are stable
If a cosmic monopole possess electric charge, then it becomes a dyon.
When a north pole binds with a corresponding south pole, they form the system known as monopolium. It is usually regarded as two spherical clouds of monopole orbiting a common centre. The half life is proportional to the cube of the initial separation of the north-south monopole pair (diameter of the cloud when the monopolium is just formed) i.e.
t1/2 ∝ rint3
For example, a monopolium with a diameter of 0.1 Å has a half life of about 1011 years. Therefore monopolia are generally regarded as stable
Monopolium radiates radio waves slowly as the diameter of the cloud decreases. When the diameter reaches about 10-12 Å, gamma rays and Z bosons started to radiate at an increasing rate. When annihilation finally occurs, it produces a shower of particles where the total energy is 75% that of the original nomopolium
Monopolium formed by non annihilating north-south poles (present in some universes) are hadronic and are stable (t1/2→∞)
Monopolium can also bind with other monopolium to form ionic or molecular structures, commonly referred as monopole matter.
Due to the large gD=67.5e, monopole matter are usually denser than their atomic counterparts. The huge binding energy between monopolia also gives them a very high energy capacity and tensile strength
Similar to monopolium, but consists of dyon pairs of similar mass. They have a cloud the shape of a bicone thus can form more complex types of monopole matter. Dyonia can be neutral, electrically charged or magnetically charged (unstable).
They are formed by either the following:
- The nucleus of an atom is replaced by a dyon or a bunch of dyons (i.e. dyonic nucleus). They are generally ellipsoid shaped and were always magnetically charged. Dyogens are examples of this system (A monopole-lepton system is generally very unstable and often considered as does not exist, theoretically there are no bound states between a lepton and a monopole alone)
- A lepton is replaced by dyons or relatively massive monopoles. Also are ellipsoid in shape. The latter is commonly formed in monopole interactions with other types of matter. They are either magnetically charged or electromagnetically charged.
- A lepton is replaced by leptonic monopoles. Also are ellipsoid in shape. They are electromagnetically charged.
- Both the nucleus and leptons are replaced by dyons of similar difference in mass, of whcih there are no north-south pairs. They are generally biconical and can be neutral, electrically charged or magnetically charged (unstable).
- Both the nucleus and leptons are replaced by monopoles of similar difference in mass, of whcih there are no north-south pairs. they are spherical and are neutral, analogous to ordinary atoms.
- The nucleus is replaced by a dyon and the lepton replaced by a monopole. They are always electrically charged
- The nucleus is replaced by non dyonic leptons, of whcih there are no north-south pairs. They can be electrically charged or magnetically charged.
Quasiparticle synthetic monopolesEdit
Emergent quasiparticle monopoles in spin ice
Magnetic mirror effectEdit
The trajectory of electrically charged leptons in the field of a monopole is always along the surface of a semi infinite cone. Therefore the lepton spirals along this surface, collide with the monopole and then bounce back in a spiral along the same conical surface
The strong magnetic field of monopoles allows them to induce various types of nuclear reactions
When a monopole travel near an atom, the individual spins of the nucleons align along the strong magnetic field of the monopole. This causes the nucleus to be magnetically polarized. The near portion of the nucleus expereince a stronger attraction to the monopole than the far side (which experence a slightly weaker repulsion due to the induced like poles formed by the alignment of the spins). As a result, the nucleus splits into two. Usually the near portion will bind to the monopole to form a dyonic atom (system of a monopole and a nucleus)
β decay catalysisEdit
A monopole travelling close to an atom can distort the electron cloud and the nucleus. Therefore the nucler binding energy is increased which permits β decay pathways which are normally forbidden. As a result, the half life of the radionuclide which undergone β decay decreases. In other words, the radionuclide decay more rapidly via β decay
For some stable nuclide, the aforementioned process can induce β decay which are normally impossible
Most elementary dyons are unstable and decay into a dirac monopole and a lepton according to the following equations
M± → M + l± (+ other particles)
(where l is a lepton)
Some unstable dirac monopoles decay into a dirac dyon and a lepton
M → M± + l∓ (+ other particles)
The core of cosmic monopoles can induce proton decay according to the below equations
MGUT + p+ → MGUT + e+ + Mesons
MGUT + p+ → MGUT + e+ + a + a (where a is any arbitrary particle)
The process is as follows:
- A cosmic monopole approaches a proton. The strong magnetic field of the monopole draws the proton towards its crust where the proton is then slowly approaches the monopole core.
- As the outer rim of the proton touches the core, the quarks started interacting with the X and Y bosons in the core and are converted into leptons according to the following equations
q ↔ l
q ↔ l
q ↔ q
l ↔ l
(where q is a quark and l is a lepton)
- The quark and antiquark produced then binds to form a meson, while the positron travels independently. The cosmic monopole remains unchanged.
Dirac monopoles cannot carry out this reaction due to the lack of a core of X and Y bosons
Particle accelerators are the major source of monopoles and dyons
- Cellulose (plastic) bottles (For holding monopoles and monopolium)
- Bar magnet arrays (Monopoles are normally attracted there and bind strongly into the Fe,Ni,Co nuclei)
- Magnetic traps (Use magnetic fields to confine monopoles and dyons in a region)
- Same as above
- Physics fields generator bottles where the conservation of energy is skewed by a constant to produce massive monopoles effortlessly (The energy is balanced by the energy required to generate bubbles of this type in the first place, which is proportional to the constant)
Monopoles have a broad range of applications:
Research and industrialEdit
- Antimatter storage: Since monopole matter is distinct from that of ordinary matter, antiparticle does not annihilate when contact with it, In addition, the magnetic charge of monopoles allow the containers with special arrangements of monopole matter to function as penning traps without an external power source, making monopole plated containers an ideal storage medium for antimatter.
- The generally strong and radial magnetic field of monopoles allows easy manipulation of antimatter and other monopoles, or other applications which require strong magnetic fields via tailor made monopole arrays (i.e. monopoles can be stacked in a certain formation to form magnetic fields with desired properties)
- High strength materials: Monopoles and monopole matter can be doped, plated or used to produced materials of high tensile strength for various applications
- More efficient particle accelerators: The high charge density of monopoles and monopole matter allows easy acceleration of monopoles with a weak magnetic field. Therefore the energy requirement for generating monopole particle beams is less than conventional particle accelerators. Monopoles can collide to produce other massive particles easily.
- Monopole chemistry: The huge energy released by the formation of bonds between monopoles or between ordinary matter and monopole matter can be coupled to other energy unfavourable chemical reaction for easy synthesize of unstable chemical species for research, or for easy ionization of chemical compounds. Monopole molecules and ions can also be synthesized and utilized for various purposes.
Energy and WasteEdit
- Monopole catalysed fission: The fission induction property of monopoles enhance the efficiency of nuclear fission and reduce nuclear waste as the normally non fissle radioactive nuclear waste consist of large nuclides can be induced to fissile when exposed to monopoles. The monopoles can then be recycled from the dyonic atoms formed by the application of magnetic fields (As monopoles are multiple times more responsive to magnetic fields than atomic nuclides due to their net magnetic charges)
- Waste management: Cosmic monopoles can be employed to slowly disintegrate waste consist of ordinary matter via proton catalysis. The mesons and positrons can be collected and routed for other applications. The cosmic monopole act as a catalyst thus replacement is unecessary.
- Magnetricity and electromagnetronics: Magnetic currents provide a more efficient means of energy transfer in power cables due to monopoles being more responsive towards magnetic fields than electrons to electric fields. Magnetricity can be combined with electricity to produce more compact electronics with unique properties.
- Energy storage medium: Splitting of monopolium using an external energy source can function as energy storage with energy capacity in the range of nuclear reactions. The separated monopoles can be allowed to recombine to release the energy stored. Monopoles can also be used to build highly efficient supercapacitors.
- Main article: Monopole weapon
The destructive potential provided by the proton catalysis property of cosmic monopoles, the fission induction and high energy density of monopole matter in general result in monopoles a highly attractive candidate for weapons of mass destruction.
In addition, the magnetic mirror effect of monopoles is exploited to build reflective shieldings to block small charged particles from particle cannons.
Bibliography (Under construction, To be converted to Harvard Referencing in the future)Edit
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